• BMF 7 -  Norhopanes

    BMF 7 - Norhopanes

    Pentacyclic triterpanes of the hopane type are ubiquitous constituents of sedimentary organic matter. Crude oils and mature sediments usually contain a predominance of hopanes with 17(H),21(H)-skeletal configurations. However, a number of rearranged (Biomarker Focus 35), demethylated hopanes (Norhopanes) and methylated hopanes are present in diagnostic quantities for geochemical and oil spill (environmental forensics) applications. A related, but less common, group of hopanes with n-alkane side chain (the 30-nor series) is also widely distributed.

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  • BMF 11 - Sulfur Standards

    BMF 11 - Sulfur Standards

    Sulfur in mineral oil or isooctane

     

    Chiron offers a range of sulfur standards for oil/petroleum analysis.  These "Sulfur in Mineral Oil" line is universial sulfur standards made from high purity sulfur-organic compounds, and sulfur-depleted mineral oil or isooctane.

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  • BMF 19 - Oil in water analysis ISO METHODS 9377-2

    BMF 19 - Oil in water analysis ISO METHODS 9377-2

    ISO 9377-2: Hydrocarbon oil index The method of choice for the determination of oil and grease in water is the new standard ISO 9377-2, and is based on extraction with a hydrocarbon solvent like pentane or hexane. This test determines the hydrocarbon oil index in water by means of gas chromatography. The method is suitable for surface water, waste water, and water from sewage treatment plants, and allows the determination of the hydrocarbon oil index in concentrations above 0.1mg/L.

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  • BMF 35 - Rearranged Hopanes

    BMF 35 - Rearranged Hopanes

    Triterpenoids in general, and specifically the hopanoids, easily undergo skeletal rearrangements where the methyl groups shifts positions, particular upon acid treatment. Several rearranged hopane-series have been identified:

    - Neohopanes
    - 17alpha(H)-Diahopanes
    - 28-nor-Spegulanes

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  • BMF 36 - C30 Hopanes

    BMF 36 - C30 Hopanes

    Beside Norhopanes (C29, see BMF 7) C30 hopanes are the most common hopanes of sedimentary matter. The origin of the hopanes is the most abundant hopanoid in prokaryotes, C35 tetrahydroxybacteriohopane.

     

    Hopanes play an important role in geochemical investigations. The natural isomer  (17(H),21(H)) may be found in recent sediments. However, the -isomer is always the dominant in mature sediments, while smaller amounts of the - isomer are present. Only minor quantities of the less stable -isomer are present. Thus, the - and the -isomers are useful internal standards as they normally do not co-elute with other hopanes or triterpenoids in mature sediment.

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  • BMF 37 - 2-Methyl and 3-methyl hopanes

    BMF 37 - 2-Methyl and 3-methyl hopanes

    Three kinds of C31 methylhopanes have been identified as constituents of ancient sediments and oils. These are 2α-, 2β-, and 3β-methylhopanes.

     

    Triterpanoids from the hopane family isolated from living organisms (“biohopanoids”) are typically derived from the C30 17β,21β framework. They are the precursors of the many hopanoids encoun-tered in sediments (“geohopanoids”) which often possesses the thermodynamically more stable 17α,21β configuration and to a lesser extent 17β,21α. Methylhopanes are typically present at between 2 and 10% of the abundance of hopanes in oils and rock sources.

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  • BMF 38 - Homohopanes and gammaceranes

    BMF 38 - Homohopanes and gammaceranes

    C31 to C35 homohopanes and pentacyclic triterpanes like gammacerane are constituents of sedimentary organic matter. The origin of the homohopanes is the most abundant hopanoid in prokaryotes, C35 tetrahydroxybacteriohopane.

     

    Chiron offers an authentic gammacerane standard in addition to the C31 homohopanes for a safe identification. Gammacerane has a completely different MS than the C31 homohopanes and reference spectra obtained from the standards are useful for this reason.

     

    Gammacerane has frequently been associated with hypersaline lacustrine environments and gammacerane structures were shown to be reliable geochemical indicators for water column stratification in marine deposits. Gammacerane is one of several diagnostic biomarkers useful in oil spill analysis.

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  • BMF 40 - Priority PAHs

    BMF 40 - Priority PAHs

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in oil, coal, and tar deposits, and are found as pollution in air, water and soil. Amongst the PAHs are some of the most toxic compounds known. Some of the PAHs are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic (linked to birth defects). Because of their wide distribution, it is therefore important to monitor these compounds.

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  • BMF 61 - GC-IRMS - Gas Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    BMF 61 - GC-IRMS - Gas Chromatography Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    GC-IRMS offers an elegant, simple and increasingly popular method to determine the carbon isotopic composition (13C/12C) of individual hydrocarbons. The ratio of these isotopes in natural materials varies slightly as a result of isotopic fractionation due to physical, chemical and biological processes. Carbon isotope ratios can be used to establish the relationship between organic compounds and their source materials. It changes with the age of the material and is therefore used in geological determination.

     

    Standards for individual n-alkanes with 11 to 40 carbons and verified δ13C values are available from Chiron!

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